Philip II, was finally elected with a Catholic majority to the detriment of Maximiliano I de Baviera, trained and more tolerant of religious practices Catholic. After his election, concern spread like wildfire throughout the Protestant world, who knew perfectly the ideals of the new emperor. Here comes the spark of the famous war of 30 years. Philip was a fervent Catholic. Why you could never hide his contempt for the Lutheran or Calvinist aristocracy and their excessive appetites of power. Resisted, the situation became more tight when the nobility of Bohemia, became already aware of their intentions, was declared in open insubordination. This was the final fact of a long series of rivalries between Christian religions (a which had subsequently add Calvinism), between had the violent events in Donauworth (Bavaria) in 1606, and formations of Evangelical or Protestant Union leagues, and the Catholic League, for the common fight.
The Bohemians proclaimed as King Federico V of the Palatinate and disregarded his Royal authority Fernando. The Habsburgs, furious, calm their impetus and decides to submit peacefully to two Catholic Councillors (Martinitz and Slavata) towards the castle of Hradcany (Prague today). When officers arrive on the scene, the Czech nobility throws to Catholic authorities in the Royal Palace by a window, but without serious damage. Eastern made, known as the second defenestration of Prague (the previous one, which occurred 200 years earlier ended the life of 7 aldermen), was the point of breakdown in the relations of the two. Boldness occurring in Bohemia soon was imitated in other Protestant States, whose noble classes also rebelled. The ascension of Felipe II and the first phase of the new war Emperor Felipe II soon realized that without an army, his days in power were numbered. For this reason he decided to seek new allies to the Catholic cause. Thus, he demanded his aid to Maximilian, only German Catholic Prince with a regular army.